Background. The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), originated from the vagus nerve, is related to different structures on the chest and the neck, as well as it is immersed in various nosological and surgical procedures that can result in functional disturbances from dysphonia and hoarseness to death by obstruction of the airway; these complications, specifically the surgical ones, might present with permanent consequences in 0.3 to 3% of the cases and transitional consequences in 3 to 8%. Ojective. To analyze the origin, course, branches and anatomic relationships of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in a sample of 58 cervico-cardio-pulmonary and digestive plastrons of Colombian population. Materials and Methods. Transversal descriptive analytic study with cervical dissection of 58 cervico-cardio-pulmonary and digestive plastrons, selected by convenience sampling. Results. It was found that 100% of the dissected plastrons have a usual place of arrival; likewise the description of the relationship between the RLN and the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) showed that the most common arrangement, both right and left RLN, was after the ITA; likewise the first case in Colombia and the tenth in the world of triangle of the recurrent laryngeal nerve was reported. Conclusions. The placement of the right and left RLN is often post-ATI; it is equally important to note the existence of triangle of the recurrent laryngeal nerve during surgical approaches, especially in thyroidectomy.