Posterior hypothalamic-deep brain stimulation (pHyp-DBS) has been reported as a successful treatment for reducing refractory aggressive behaviors in patients with distinct primary diagnoses. Here, we report on a patient with cri du chat syndrome presenting severe self-injury and aggressive behaviors toward others, who was treated with pHyp-DBS. Positive results were observed at long-term follow-up in aggressive behavior and quality of life. Intraoperative microdialysis and imaging connectomics analysis were performed to investigate possible mechanisms of action. Our results suggest the involvement of limbic and motor areas and alterations in main neurotransmitter levels in the targeted area that are associated with positive results following treatment.